Plasmid mini made and maxi DNA purification kits can be silica gel or anion exchange, endotoxin free and are used to produce pure plasmids that are small DNA molecules within a cell separated from chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently. They are most commonly found in bacteria as small circular, double-stranded DNA molecules; however, plasmids are sometimes present in archaea and eukaryotic organisms. In nature, plasmids often carry genes that may benefit the survival of the organism, for example antibiotic resistance. While the chromosomes are big and contain all the essential information for living, plasmids usually are very small and contain only additional information. Artificial plasmids are widely used as vectors in molecular cloning, serving to drive the replication of recombinant DNA sequences within host organisms.
Human proteins, cDNA and human recombinants are used in human reactive ELISA kits and to produce anti-human mono and polyclonal antibodies. Modern humans (Homo sapiens, primarily ssp. Homo sapiens sapiens). Depending on the epitopes used human ELISA kits can be cross reactive to many other species. Mainly analyzed are human serum, plasma, urine, saliva, human cell culture supernatants and biological samples.
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